firewalld.zones — firewalld zones
What is a zone?A network zone defines the level of trust for network connections. This is a one to many relation, which means that a connection can only be part of one zone, but a zone can be used for many network connections.The zone defines the firewall features that are enabled in this zone:
Rich language rulesThe rich language extends the elements (service, port, icmp-block, masquerade, forward-port and source-port) with additional source and destination addresses, logging, actions and limits for logs and actions. It can also be used for host or network white and black listing (for more information, please have a look at firewalld.richlanguage(5)).For more information on the zone file format, please have a look at firewalld.zone(5).
Which zones are available?Here are the zones provided by firewalld sorted according to the default trust level of the zones from untrusted to trusted:
Any incoming network packets are dropped, there is no reply. Only outgoing network connections are possible.
Any incoming network connections are rejected with an
icmp-host-prohibitedmessage for IPv4 and
icmp6-adm-prohibitedfor IPv6. Only network connections initiated within this system are possible.
For use in public areas. You do not trust the other computers on networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.
For use on external networks with masquerading enabled especially for routers. You do not trust the other computers on networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.
For computers in your demilitarized zone that are publicly-accessible with limited access to your internal network. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.
For use in work areas. You mostly trust the other computers on networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.
For use in home areas. You mostly trust the other computers on networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.
For use on internal networks. You mostly trust the other computers on the networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.
All network connections are accepted.
How to configure or add zones?To configure or add zones you can either use one of the firewalld interfaces to handle and change the configuration: These are the graphical configuration tool firewall-config, the command line tool firewall-cmd or the D-Bus interface. Or you can create or copy a zone file in one of the configuration directories.
/usr/lib/firewalld/zonesis used for default and fallback configurations and
/etc/firewalld/zonesis used for user created and customized configuration files.
How to set or change a zone for a connection?The zone is stored into the ifcfg of the connection with
ZONE=option. If the option is missing or empty, the default zone set in firewalld is used.If the connection is controlled by NetworkManager, you can also use nm-connection-editor to change the zone.For the addion or change of interfaces that are not under control of NetworkManager: firewalld tries to change the ZONE setting in the ifcfg file, if an ifcfg file exists that is using the interface.Only for the removal of interfaces that are not under control of NetworkManager: firewalld is not trying to change the ZONE setting in the ifcfg file. This is needed to make sure that an ifdown of the interface will not result in a reset of the zone setting to the default zone. Only the zone binding is then removed in firewalld then.
firewall-applet(1), firewalld(1), firewall-cmd(1), firewall-config(1), firewallctl(1), firewalld.conf(5), firewalld.direct(5), firewalld.dbus(5), firewalld.icmptype(5), firewalld.lockdown-whitelist(5), firewall-offline-cmd(1), firewalld.richlanguage(5), firewalld.service(5), firewalld.zone(5), firewalld.zones(5), firewalld.ipset(5), firewalld.helper(5)